Hematuria is the presence of Red blood (blood) cells in urine. Remember, consider presence of blood in urine in women during their menses as false positive. Causes Traumatic – accidents, injury to the pelvic region and during catheterization. Never catheterize in hematuria since it passes through prostatic vessels and the patient can further bleed clots. Tumors as one of the most common causes of hematuria. Transisitional cell carcinoma accounts for 95% of the cases. Drugs such as warfarin, heparin and aspirin interfere with clotting. Bleeding disorders such as haemophilia A and B, von will brand disease etc. Infections such as urinary tract infection, bilharzia and schistosomiasis. Some causes are idiopathic meaning are not known. Remember that rifampicin drug
Diabetes Mellitus or simply diabetes is very common in our today society. We have special clinics in our hospitals whereby we follow up patients with diabetes in order to optimize their diabetes control and the drugs for diabetes in our patients. In these visits, we also emphasize on diet, lifestyle and general care for people with diabetes. On the care, we educate our patients on the care of the feet in order to prevent diabetes ulcers/foot since it’s easy to get ulcers if not careful due to reduced protective sensation of pain and the healing is slower compared to general population since there is usually compromise of the blood supply from micro-vascular disease. When infected, it’s not easy to treat because of the compromised reach of the antibiotics due to the same. If care is
Lymphatic filariasis also called elephantiasis is a disease caused by filarial parasitic worms that can lead to swellings of the limbs and genitalia. This usually leads to social stigma and severe disability of the patient making them to stay at home and not doing productive work hence economic loss. Currently the disease is affecting 120 million people with 40 million suffering the severe form of the disease around the world. The disease is endemic mainly in India, Africa and South America. In Kenya over 3 million people are at risk of the disease mostly the poor communities where sanitation is poor and mosquito breeding is rampant. There are campaigns on going to eradicate the disease by 2020. The government of Kenya set aside 1 Billion Kenya shilling for eradication of elephantia...
Many of us are well versed with Breast Cancer, but the breast can be affected like any other tissue in the body with several diseases such as infections and abscess and presenting with lumps, pain, discomfort, nipple discharge and skin wound or discoloration. In this article we will just give an overview of some of the benign conditions affecting the breast. For Breast cancer see our article www.healthjournal254.com/breast-cancer/ This is the most common cause of breast problems and up to 30% of women will suffer benign breast disorder at some time in their lives. Congenital anomalies Amazia – absence of the breast may occur on one or both sides. Common in men Polymazia – accessory breasts – in the axilla (most frequent site), groin, buttock and thighs. They have been known to
Introduction to Breast Cancer We want to note that not all breast disease or lump is Breast Cancer, there are many benign diseases that affect the breast. These include Duct ectasia, Periductal Mastitis, Galactorrhea, Intraductal Papilloma, Fibroadenoma among others. Breast cancer is the Malignant disease of the breast. Breast Cancer is so common that it affects 1 in every 9 women, that is about 10%. The peak age of Breast Cancer is 40 – 60 years of age. Breast cancer has insidious development meaning that it remains silent for long (2-7 years) before showing any clinical features hence the need of screening for early diagnosis and treatment. Breast cancer contributes to 23.3% of all cancer deaths in Kenya. This is attributed to late diagnosis and inaccessibility to t